W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, Three Negro Classics, 221. All further
references to Souls are cited parenthetically in the text as S.
Du Bois, ‘‘The Present Outlook for the Dark Races of Mankind,’’ 47. All
further references to this speech are cited parenthetically in the text as ‘‘PO.’’ I
am indebted to Nahum Chandler for having suggested the relevance of this
text in a brief seminar on Du Bois (‘‘Reading Seminar: ‘The Problem of the
Twentieth Century Is the Problem of the Color Line’ ’’).
Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, 84.
According to M. E. Chamberlain, the term decolonization ‘‘came into general
use in the 1950s and 1960s although it seems to have been coined in 1932 by
the German scholar Moritz Julius Bonn’’ (Decolonization, 1). For other stud-
ies of decolonization, see R. F. Holland, European Decolonization, and Pre-
senjit Duara, Decolonization: Perspectives from Now and Then. Mary Louise
Pratt has described the Latin American independence movements of the
1820s as the ‘‘first wave of decolonization’’ (Imperial Eyes, 175). My use of
‘‘waves of decolonization’’ is deeply indebted to Pratt’s entire project.
The term transnational has increasingly been associated with the current
‘‘globalized’’ regime of capital accumulation (see, for instance, Roger Rouse,
‘‘Thinking Through Transnationalism,’’ 368). In relation to earlier historical
periods, I use the term transnational in a di√erent way to distinguish certain
activities from those termed international, which identifies a consortium of
nationally based entities. In my use, the term transnational instead denotes
modes of a≈liation that elude the national and activities beyond the purview
of the state, such as those implied by the term ‘‘darker races’’ invoked in the
naacp journal Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races, edited by Du Bois
beginning in 1910. See also Paul Gilroy’s analysis of ‘‘outer-national’’ cultural
flows in The Black Atlantic, 16; the distinction between ‘‘international’’ and
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