I want to thank my family for their unwavering support. Mom and Dad,
thank you for encouraging me to follow my dreams, and Kristin, for always
believing. Russell, thank you for inspiring me and my work, and, more im-
portantly, for always being there.
I wish to acknowledge the significant contributions to this work of my
professors at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa: Michael J. Shapiro, Jona-
than Goldberg-Hiller, and Noenoe K. Silva. Your guidance and generous
sharing of your always brilliant insight have made this work possible.
Many thanks too to Teweiariki Teaero for permission to reproduce his
poem “Ocean Heart Beat” from Wa‘a in Storms in the introduction, and to
Robert Sullivan and Auckland University Press for permission to use “Waka
93” from Star Waka (1999) in the epilogue.
I also owe much gratitude to those who participated in oral histories,
sharing thoughts and stories from their lives and from their important
work: Bruce M. Blankenfeld, Nainoa Thompson, John R. Kukeakalani
Clark, Duane DeSoto, Kanekoa Schultz, Angela Hi‘ilani Kawelo, and Vicki
Mahalo also to Cody Pueo Pata and Keoni James Kuoha for editing the
Hawaiian language and content in this book. Me ka ha‘aha‘a.