notes
Introduction
1. Amanico, O Brasil dos gringos, 70.
2. See Lutz and Collins, Reading “National Geographic.” The magazine’s portrayals of
Brazil as the site of tropical wonders, futuristic architecture, expansive territories,
and exotic Indians include Paulo A. Zahl, “Giant Insects of the Amazon,” National
Geographic, May 1959, 632–69; Hernane Tavares de and Thomas J. Abercrombie,
“Brasília, Metropolis Made to Order,” National Geographic, May 1960, 704–24; Peter T.
White and Winfield Parks, “Giant Brazil,” National Geographic, September 1962, 299–
353; Harald Schultz, “Brazil’s Waurá Indians,” National Geographic, January 1966,
130–52. For an example of travelogue images of Rio’s Carnival, see Horace Sutton,
“Bacchanal in Brazil,” Saturday Review, March 4, 1961, 35–36, 59.
3. Page, The Revolution That Never Was.
4. Leacock, Requiem for Revolution, 118–24; Black, United States Penetration of Brazil, 64–69.
5. Weis, “Government News Management, Bias and Distortion.”
6. Schoultz, Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America, 25.
7. Congressional Record—Senate (April 3, 1964): 6851–6852; (August 10, 1964): 18834–
18835.
8. Smith, Resisting Reagan, xvi.
9. Morel, O golpe começou em Washington.
10. Elio Gaspari’s comprehensive four- volume history of the military regime has helped
to deflate the myth held by many in Brazil that there was consensus in the United
States in favor of the Brazilian military dictatorship. His second volume, A ditadura
escancarada (The Blatant Dictatorship), appeared midstream in my research for this
book, and we cover similar territory (see 271–92). Gaspari offers a sweeping history
of the twenty- one years of the generals’ rule. My book is narrower in focus and deals
with only one aspect of that story, namely, a detailed analysis of how forces emerged
in the United States to challenge the Brazilian dictatorship and the U.S. administra-
tions that backed the generals in power and how these forces helped reshape U.S.
policy. Initial groundwork for this work was published as Green, “Clergy, Exiles,
and Academics.”
11. Schoultz, Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America, 6.
12. Forsythe, Human Rights and World Politics, 142. Edward L. Cleary dramatically dates the
beginning of the “human rights era in Latin America” with the 1973 Chilean coup
d’état but also indicates earlier organizing for Brazil (after the military assumed
harsher dictatorial powers in December 1968) as critical to later efforts regarding
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