Conclusion. Dual Power against the Magical State
Dispersed people, dispersed hearts,
dispersed struggles, let us find the reasons . . .
Why not unite, if the rifle and the gospel
have already united in Camilo’s hands?
I ask, I ask, why do we divide ourselves,
if this only makes our enemies happy?
Why do we insist on isolating our struggles,
the struggles that should lead us to final victory?
—Alí Primera
In many ways, this people’s history has been a history of the dispersal of a
people: the failure of the Venezuelan guerrilla war, a struggle that repre-
sented the people in its aspirations but never in its constituency, led to a
dispersal of popular forces. This dispersal then gave rise to a period in which
a multiplicity of movements and struggles developed autonomously across
Venezuelan society, in factories, barrios, schools, homes, parties, and a mul-
titude of revolutionary organizations and political formations. However,
while this period of dispersal and autonomous development has been cru-
cial to the consolidation of Afro, indigenous, and women’s identities, few
would consider this dispersal of the movement to be an unambiguously
positive development, an end in itself. Thus, although I disagree with Pri-
mera’s suggestion that any division of the struggle necessarily constitutes a
weakness, and certainly with the idea that there might be such a thing as a
‘‘final victory,’’ I nevertheless take his point that these dispersed struggles
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