1 William Kentridge, “Refuse the Hour,” lecture delivered during the per­for­mance
Refuse the Hour, 2012, insert in William Kentridge, The Refusal of Time (Paris: Édi-
tions Xavier Barral, 2012), xiii–­xiv.
2 Kentridge, “Refuse the Hour,” xiv.
3 Peter Galison and William Kentridge, “Give Us Back Our Sun,” in Kentridge, The
Refusal of Time, 157.
4 Immanuel Kant, “Idea of a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose,” in
Po­ liti ­ cal Writings, ed. Hans Reiss and trans. H. B. Nisbet (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1991), 51–52, translation modified; Idee zu einer allgemeinen Ge-
schichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht, in Schriften zur Anthropologie, Geschichtsphi-
losophie, Politik und Pädagogik 1, ed. Wilhelm Weischedel (Frankfurt am Main:
Suhrkamp, 1968), 47–48.
5 For a summary of the various possible and missed connections between world
literature and cosmopolitanism in existing theories of world literature, see César
Domínguez, “World Literature and Cosmopolitanism,” in The Routledge Com-
panion to World Literature, ed. Theo D’haen, David Damrosch, and Djelal Kadir
(New York: Routledge, 2011): 242–52.
6 Thomas G. Pavel, Fictional Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
1986), 10. For a similar approach to world literature, see Eric Hayot, On Literary
Worlds (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
7 Pavel, Fictional Worlds, 46, 50.
8 See Failed States Index of the Fund for Peace, http://­ffp​.­statesindex​.­org. Somalia,
the setting of Nuruddin Farah’s Gifts, has occupied first place on the index in the
past six years.
9 See Helen Stacy, “The Legal System of International Human Rights,” in David
Palumbo-­Liu, Bruce Robbins, and Nirvana Tanoukhi (eds.), Immanuel Wallerstein
and the Problem of the World: System, Scale, Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University
Press, 2011), 187–201. See also Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001) and Anthony Anghie, Imperialism,
Sovereignty and the Making of International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 2007).
10 Engseng Ho, “Inter-­Asia Then and Now,” plenary lecture, ssrc Conference on
Inter-­Asian Connections, University of Hong Kong, June 8, 2012. Unpublished
manuscript on file with the author.
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