APPENDIX
1936 Frank Burch, ophthalmologist, proposes the idea of using iris
patterns for personal id (National Center for State Courts, 2002)
1949 ‘‘Access control’’ initially listed in the Federal Standard 1037c,
Glossary of Telecommunication Terms; Sandia National Laboratories,
based in New Mexico, begins developing ‘‘science-based technolo-
gies that support our national security’’
1950s fbi begins e√orts to store fingerprint information on punch cards
for mechanical searching (P. Jones 2006)
1960s fbi sponsors research at the National Bureau of Standards on auto-
mated fingerprint systems (Biometric Consortium 1995)
1963 John Fitzmaurice of Baird-Atomics and Joseph Wegstein and Ray-
mond Moore of the U.S. National Bureau of Standards begin experi-
ments with optical recognition of fingerprint patterns (S. A. Cole
2004)
mid-1960s Identimation develops the hand geometry product Identimat
(Guevin 2002)
1967 fbi creates National Crime Information Center (ncic), a national
database of information on wanted people (U.S. Department of
Justice 2004)
late 1960s–
early 1970s General Electric, McDonnell Douglas, Sperry Rand, and the kms
Technology Center investigate the possibilities of holographic imag-
ing for digital fingerprinting, but holography proves too expensive
(S. A. Cole 2004); digital techniques for enhancement of images are
developed for nasa and found useful when applied to digital finger-
printing (Cherry and Inwinkelried 2006)
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