INDEX
access control, 51, 159–61; in the prison
system, 53–54, 57, 162–63
AcSys Biometrics Corp., 24
Afghanistan, 152; Canadian military
involvement in, 105, 107; National Geo-
graphic ‘‘Afghan Girl’’ photo (McCurry),
139–48
afirm, 70, 80
afis (Automated Fingerprint Identifica-
tion System), 55–57, 62, 160–62, 167
n. 6
a4Vision, 24
aid to Families with Dependent Children
(afdc), 70–71, 75
airport security technology, 11, 110–11;
Boston Logan International Airport,
26–27; Edmonton International Air-
port, 25
algorithms: description of, 21; for face
classification, 35, 38–41, 44; for iris rec-
ognition, 53, 137, 144, 162
Alloula, Malek, 142, 144
Alston, Kal, 44
American Civil Liberties Union (aclu), 26
America’s Most Wanted (tv show), 149
analog technologies, 8, 13, 19, 52; fin-
gerprinting, 160, 167 n. 6
Andreas, Peter, 155, 166 n. 7
anthropometry, 39, 43, 46, 153, 155
Badhi, Reem, 47
Banisar, David, 70
Bannerji, Himani, 98
behavioral profiling, 11, 22
Bigo, Didier, 109
binary code, 5; bodily information stored
as, 8, 11, 43, 64, 67, 128, 152–53
bin Laden, Osama, 11, 149–50
biological nature of identity, 20, 43, 46
biometric errors, 6, 12–13, 151
biometrics: antibiometric legislation,
164; as bleeding edge technology, 32;
definition of, 8, 21–23; industry begin-
nings, 51–54; maps or renderings of
the body, 4–5, 11–13, 17, 29–30, 75,
122–23, 156–57; in media, 128–31;
multimodal, 28; as a politically success-
ful policy failure, 18, 21–23, 155; and
racial profiling, 20, 23–25, 46–48, 150,
155; and scientist credibility, 46; skin
color, 36; soft biometrics, 14, 33; visual
culture of, 128–29, 132–34. See also
algorithms; biometric technologies
biometric technologies: active vs. pas-
sive, 22–23; and aesthetics of trans-
parency, 139, 148, 152; analog, 8, 13, 19,
52, 160, 167 n. 6; biometric billboards,
1–2, 129–30; brain-fingerprinting
technologies, 11; brain wave measure-
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