NOTES
FOREWORD
1. In the Andean world, apu is the Quechua word given to sacred mountains.
2. See Ricardo Uceda, Muerte en el Pantagonito: Los crematorios secretos del Ejército
peruano Barcelona: Editorial Norma, 2004).
3. On the subject of the university during the time of violence, see Comisión
de la Verdad y Reconciliación, Informe final, vol. 3, chap. 3.6, University of Hua-
manga.
4. It is worth noting, although it may be redundant to do so, that “human-
izing” members of Shining Path does not mean accepting the organization’s
project, which continues to be radically unacceptable.
5. We must not forget that many of them eventually fled Shining Path; quite a
few became village patrollers fighting the guerrillas; others simply disappeared
from the war zone and even, as in Gavilán’s case, were taken in by the armed
forces and later entered monasteries.
6. Those who maintain their political activity have regrouped in the Movement
for Amnesty and Fundamental Rights. They advocate amnesty for Shining Path
leaders and, paradoxically, also for the jailed former Peruvian president Alberto
Fujimori and those members of the military who have been sentenced for human
rights violations. The extremes are more alike than different. Those who con-
tinue in armed struggle are small groups in some of the coca- growing valleys,
ever more involved with drug trafficking.
7. This pyramid employs a fundamentalist verticality, commanded by cadres
from the universities or high schools who formed the vertex and were fasci-
nated by the world vision put forth by Shining Path’s highest leader, Abimael
Guzmán (alias Chairman Gonzalo), and a base composed of peasants who ex-
perienced the tension between the world of the organization and the daily life
in their communities. See Carlos Iván Degregori, “Jóvenes y campesinas ante a
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