Notes
introduction
1. Historians have described the ambivalence that slaves and mixed-race sectors
felt toward the independence movement as led by creole elites such as Bolívar,
who was one of the most wealthy slave-owning cacao producers. This was
why some popular sectors participated in countermovements such as that led
by Boves. See, for instance, Bergquist, Labor in Latin America, 199; Carrera
Damas, Historiografía marxista Venezolana y otros temas.
2. Roberts, ‘‘Social Correlates of Party System Demise and Populist Resurgence in
Venezuela.’’
3. Ellner, ‘‘The Contrasting Variants of the Populism of Hugo Chávez and Alberto
Fujimori.’’
4. Levine, ‘‘The Decline and Fall of Democracy in Venezuela’’; Molina and Pérez,
‘‘Radical Change at the Ballot Box’’; Molina, ‘‘The Presidential and Parliamen-
tary Elections of the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela’’; Ramírez Roa, ‘‘La
política extraviada en la Venezuela de los años ’90.’’
5. Molina and Pérez, ‘‘Radical Change at the Ballot Box,’’ 105.
6. Levine, ‘‘The Decline and Fall of Democracy in Venezuela,’’ 254.
7. Weyland, ‘‘Economic Voting Reconsidered,’’ 844; Naím, ‘‘The Real Story behind
Venezuela’s Woes.’’
8. ‘‘Susceptible’’: McCoy, ‘‘From Representative to Participatory Democracy?,’’
293; ‘‘ripe’’: Canache, ‘‘Urban Poor and Political Order,’’ 47; ‘‘charisma-hungry’’:
Weyland, ‘‘Economic Voting Reconsidered,’’ 843; ‘‘unorganized’’: Roberts, ‘‘So-
cial Correlates of Party System Demise and Populist Resurgence in Venezuela,’’
36.
9. McCoy, ‘‘From Representative to Participatory Democracy?’’ 270.
10. For a few examples of this broad and diverse literature, see Boudin, Gonzá-
lez, and Rumbos, Venezuelan Revolution (‘‘Participatory Democracy’’ chapter);
Alex Holland, ‘‘Venezuela’s Urban Land Committees and Participatory De-
mocracy,’’ February 11, 2006, http://www.venezuelanalysis.com (visited March
10, 2008); Michael Fox, ‘‘Venezuela’s Secret Grassroots Democracy,’’ November
30, 2006, http://www.zmag.org (visited March 10, 2008).
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