For theoretical discussions of political violence, see H. L. Nieburg
Political Violence and the Behavioral Process (New York: St. Martins, 1969)
Richard E. Rubenstein, Rebels in Eden: Mass Political Violence in the Unite
States (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970); and Peter Merkl, Political Violence an
Terror: Motift and Motivations (Berkeley: University of California Press
1986). Hofstadter's words can be found in his article "Reflections on Vio
lence in the United States," in American Violence: A Documentary History, ed
Richard Hofstadter and Michael Wallace (New York: Knopf, 1970),6. Fo
a discussion of southern violence, see George C. RabIe, But There Was No
Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction (Athens: Universit
of Georgia Press, 1984), 1-3, 13; Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Honor and Vio
lence in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Sheldo
Hackney, "Southern Violence," in Violence and Culture in America: Historica
and Comparative Perspectives, ed. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gur
(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969), 387-401; and
Dickson D. Bruce Jr., Violence and Culture in the Antebellum South (Austin
University of Texas Press, 1979)' For a gripping case study of politica
violence in Civil War North Carolina, see Phillip Shaw Paludan, Victims: A
True Story of the Civil War (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 198 I)
For a discussion of Woodward's childhood in Arkansas, see John Her
bert Roper, C. Vtmn Woodward, Southerner (Athens: University of Georgi
Press, 1987),6-3°.
3. See for example Jonathan M. Wiener, Social Origins of the New South
Alabama: 1860-1885 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press
1978), which examines five black-belt Alabama counties; Randolph B
Campbell, A Southern Community in Crisis: Harrison County, Texas, 1850
1880 (Austin: Texas State Historical Society, I983); Michael Wayne, Th
Reshaping of Plantation Society: The Natchez District, 1860-1880 (Bato
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, I983); Robert L. Brandfon, Cot
ton Kingdom of the New South: A History
the Yazoo Mississippi Delta from
Reconstruction to the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Harvard Universit
Press, 1967); Crandall Shifflett, Patronage and Poverty in the Tobacco South
Louisa County, Virginia, 1860-1900 (Knoxville: University of Tennesse
Press, 1982); Steven Hahn, The Roots of Southern Populism: Yeoman Farmer
and the Transformation of the Georgia Upcountry, 1850-1890 (New York
Oxford University Press, 1983)' For one of the best regional studies within
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