1 Gutterman, “Obama Fought”; Remnick, Bridge.
2 Much of the scholarship about the Selma movement focuses on Dr.  Martin
Luther King  Jr. and the nationally oriented goals of the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference, which sought to secure voting rights legislation. This
body of scholarship tells only an abbreviated version of the black freedom
strug­gle in Selma, one that focuses so intently on the campaign for voting
rights that it misses the ­ battle for economic opportunities and in­ de ­ pen­
dence that African Americans fought si­mul­ta­neously. Often climaxing
with the victorious passing of the Voting Rights Act, scholarship focusing
on Selma “the moment” tells a triumphal story in which Selma becomes a
monument to the justice and righ­teousness of American democracy. See
Branch, At Canaan’s Edge; Branch, Pillar of Fire; Ea­gles, Outside Agita-
tor; Fager, Selma, 1965; Garrow, Bearing the Cross; Garrow, Protest at
Selma; Longnecker, Selma’s Peacemaker; May, Bending ­ toward Justice;
Patterson, Eve of Destruction; Stanton, From Selma to Sorrow; Sheyann
Webb, Selma, Lord, Selma. The most comprehensive study of Selma from
its earliest days through the civil rights movement is Fitts, Selma. J. Mills
Thornton examines in detail how municipal politics affected the voting
rights movement in Selma; see Thornton, Dividing Lines.
3 Windham, She, 37.
4 The idea of the “long civil rights movement,” put forward by historians
such as Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and William Chafe, contends that African
Americans’ strug­gles for citizenship and justice extended well before and ­
after the traditional civil rights movement and included demands for
economic, sexual, and po­liti­cal as well as civil rights. Recent scholarship by
Susan Youngblood Ashmore, Cynthia Griggs Fleming, and Hasan Kwame
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