1. Martin, Life and Ministry of William J. Seymour, 11–12.
2. Eliade, The Quest, Preface, 4–10; Olsen, Theory and Method in the Study of Reli-
gion, 156.
1. As late as 1912, Seymour and the Azusa Street mission were still hailed as the
single most important leader and center of early Pentecostalism. This is based on a
number of facts, the two most important being: (1) Parham wrote that Seymour and
Azusa were the most important rival leader and center of global Pentecostalism in
1912 and (2) Boddy wrote that same year that Azusa was a “Mecca” of global Pentecos-
talism. Durham died that year, before he could patch up his differences with Seymour
over his summer 1911 schism. This left Seymour without one of his most famous white
friends and one who promoted Seymour and the Azusa revival throughout the larger
white Pentecostal movement from 1907 until the summer of 1911.
2. These data were provided by Peter Crossing and Todd Johnson from the World
Christian Database, Leiden, Brill Online, 2012. Gastón Espinosa, e-mail exchange
with Peter Crossing, March 5 and April 15, 2012.
3. John T. Maempa, “Keeping the flame alive—an Azusa Street Centennial Re-
port,” News & Information, May 3, 2006,
4. For the nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century roots of Pentecostalism
see Dayton, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism; Wacker, Heaven Below; Blumhofer, As-
semblies of God, Vol. 1; Goff, Fields White unto Harvest; Robeck, Azusa Street Mission
and Revival; Alexander, Black Fire; Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition; Nelson, “For
Such a Time as This”; Jacobsen, Thinking in the Spirit; Hollenweger, The Pentecostals;
Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited; Anderson, Spreading Fires.
5. Bergunder, “Introduction: Constructing Indian Pentecostalism,” 10; McGee,
“Initial Evidence,” 784–90.
6. Warfield, Counterfeit Miracles; Scofield, Scofield Reference Bible; MacArthur,
Charismatic Chaos; Hanegraaff, Counterfeit Revival.
7. Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, 207–11; Robeck, “National Association of
Evangelicals,” 922–25.
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