As North American troops arrived in Tampa and prepared to
intervene in Cuba, emigres must have remembered with some
nostalgia Marti's first speech in their city. In that memorable
address during November 1891, Marti recalled that as his train
approached Tampa, "suddenly the sun broke through a clearing
in the woods and there in the dazzling of unexpected light I saw
above the yellowish grass proudly rising among the black trunks
of fallen trees the flourishing branches of new pines."! Marti
then told Tampefios and all emigres intent on freeing their
homeland that they were "new pines," a new generation of
Cubans not only interested in freeing their country from Span-
ish rule but creating a self-reliant nation based on social justice,
racial harmony, and opportunity for all. He then created the
Partido Revolucionario Cubano
to organize the insurrection
that could make this vision a reality.
Far from achieving the original goals of the
however, the
war of liberation resulted in North American occupation. By the
end of 1898 Spain had been defeated but at an enormous cost to
Cuban self-determinism and self-reliance: the Cuban army had
been disbanded, the provisional government had been dissolved
without ever having received the dignity of a United States
recognition, and the
had ceased to exist. In a circular to the
clubs in December, Estrada Palma announced that Cubans
"had reached their noble goal: Cuba has stopped being Spanish,
Cuba is independent." As such, "the Cuban Revolutionary Party
has completed its task."2 Its reason for being had past. Certainly,
Marti would not have agreed that the
had accomplished its
goal; the emigre leadership had strayed from Marti's popular
nationalist vision and led the insurgency down a road that re-
sulted not in a "Free Cuba" but an occupied Cuba. The popular
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