i n d e x
Abakuá, 91, 146, 147, 148–49, 157, 160,
197–98, 226–27, 245, 248–49, 260–
61, 315n. 22, 329nn. 104 and 105, 337n.
59, 343n. 35; potencias (groupings),
91, 146–48, 329n. 101; in Regla, 148,
329nn. 101 and 105, 343n. 35; ritual,
146, 329n. 100, 341n. 28
Adechina. See Herrera, Remigio
Adorno, Theodor, 11, 18, 41, 62, 309n. 43
African American cultures, 41; histo-
ricity of, 301n. 7; historiography on,
141–42; modernity of, 46; as ‘‘un-
disciplined,’’ 51
Africanity, 30, 161, 197–98, 218, 224,
228, 235, 336n. 56, 341n. 25
African origins, 25, 154, 159, 161
Afro-Brazilian religions, 141–42, 159–61;
co-optation of social scientists by cult
groups, 161, 252. See also candomblé
Afro-Cuban religion, 1, 2, 4, 15–16, 29,
31, 157–58, 163, 268; criminalized, 30;
Cuban communist party, position on,
264; cult groups, 159, 212, 228, 231,
254–55, 341n. 27, 342n. 34; deities (see
oricha); material culture and symbol-
ism, 90, 163, 248–49; modernity of,
15; persecution of, 29–32, 217, 225,
228, 231, 232; ritual objects, 163, 247–
49, 262; white participation in, 148,
197–98, 216, 227, 236, 337n. 60. See
also Abakuá; nganga complex; nganga
objects; oricha; palo monte; regla
ocha; spiritism; spirits of the dead
Antillean labor migration, to Cuba, 215,
218, 340n. 17
Aponte, Joaquín, 101–4; celebrated in his
grandson’s imagery, 102–3
Aponte y Ulabarra, José Antonio, 20–24,
32, 160, 262–63, 289, 299n. 26, 310n.
1, 312n. 16, 318n. 38, 323n.63, 324n.
74, 324–25n. 75, 325n. 79, 325–26n.
84, 326–27n. 90, 327nn. 91 and 94; al-
leged lucumí descent, 89–90, 143; bio-
graphical data on, 87–88, 311n. 11; as
conspirator, 21, 82, 83–84, 91–95, 132,
310n. 4; as deputy of the Virgin of Re-
medios, 90, 157, 313–15n. 21; descrip-
tion of images in his book, 98, 99–105,
110–11; execution of, 83; hermeneu-
tics of, 112–13, 120; historical sub-
jectivity of, 93, 96–97, 126, 132;
historiography on, 21–24, 84–98,
311n. 7, 315n. 25; interrogation of, 82,
136; as member of Havana’s Afro-
Cuban elite, 88; as organic intellectual,
22, 92; participation in the American
War of Independence, 87, 100; ques-
tion of African influences on, 117,
120–21, 142–43; self-portrait, 99;
sources used by, 22, 103, 107, 118, 121,
290–93, 319n. 45, 320nn. 52 and 53,
320–21n. 54, 322n. 59, 324–25n. 75,
325nn. 77 and 82. See also imagery, in
Aponte’s book
appropriation, 55, 273; of Christianity,
304n. 18; cultural, 103, 106, 109, 117–
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