1. Parts of this introduction have appeared previously in Donna J. Guy, ‘‘Femi-
nists, Philanthropists, the Rise of the Welfare State and Child Welfare Poli-
cies,’’ Brújula 4.1 (2006): 45–60. The bibliography on this subject is extensive,
so I will only mention a few works here: Rachel Fuchs, Abandoned Children:
Foundlings and Child Welfare in Nineteenth-Century France (Albany: State Uni-
versity of New York Press, 1984); Gisela Bock and Pat Thane, eds., Maternity
and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880s–
1950s (London: Routledge, 1991); Valerie Fildes, Lara Marks, and Hilary Mar-
land, eds., Women and Children First: International Maternal and Infant Welfare,
1870–1945 (London: Routledge, 1992); Robert G. Moeller, Protecting Mother-
hood: Women and the Family in the Politics of Postwar West Germany (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1993); Seth Koven and Sonya Michel, eds.,
Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States
(New York: Routledge, 1993); Linda Gordon, Pitied but Not Entitled: Single
Mothers and History of Welfare, 1890–1935 (New York: Free Press, 1994); Diane
Sainsbury, Gender, Equality, and Welfare States (London: Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 1996); Sylvia Schaefer, Children in Moral Danger and the Problem
of Government in Third Republic France (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univer-
sity Press, 1997); Joanne L. Goodwin, Gender and the Politics of Welfare Re-
form: Mothers’ Pensions in Chicago, 1911–1929 (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1997); Young-Sun Hong, Welfare, Modernity, and the Weimar State, 1919–
1933 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998); Sonya Michel, Chil-
dren’s Interests/Mothers’ Rights: The Shaping of America’s Child Care Policy (New
Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999); Lynne Haney, Inventing the Needy:
Gender and the Politics of Welfare in Hungary (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2002); Mine Ener, Managing Egypt’s Poor and the Politics of Benevolence,
1800–1952 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003); Michael Bon-
ner, Mine Ener, and Amy Singer Bonner, eds., Poverty and Charity in Middle
Eastern Contexts (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003); Ann
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