Conclusion: Strange Bedfellows
The migrant is in First World space.—gayatri chakravorty
spivak, A Critique of Postcolonial Reason
A Question of Audience If Japanese women’s internationalist practice
is an example of ‘‘discrepant cosmopolitanisms’’ (Cli√ord 1992, 108),
showing that cosmopolitanism is ‘‘neither a Western invention nor a West-
ern privilege’’ (Robbins 1992, 182), this practice also maintains tense rela-
tions with ongoing Western political projects. A humanist resolution to the
tensions of internationalism in an invocation of hybridity and multiplicity
does not account for the continuing (post)colonial hierarchies of legit-
imacy and power that fix internationalist women in a relationship to the
West and appropriate their narratives for purposes other than their own.
As Gyan Prakash has written, ‘‘The concept of multiple-selves . . . cannot
be adequate for conceiving colonial di√erence’’ (1997, 497). I suggest this
is true of postcolonial di√erences as well. In this conclusion, I consider the
real social e√ects of imaginative agency as it works itself out in actual sites
of postcolonial di√erence, when fantasies of the eroticized Self/Other
alight in specific encounters and moments of experience, implicating ac-
tors and (ethnographic) observers alike.
Because of the social pressures on internationalist women in Japan to
renounce international allegiances in favor of a return to the communal
fold, they are often forced to seek sustenance and legitimation of their
cosmopolitanism from foreign sources. The process of women’s interna-
tionalism entails above all a disciplining of the body, mind, and voice in
accordance with the ‘‘rules’’ of a predeterminative West, in a version of
what Homi Bhabha (1994) has called ‘‘mimicry’’: ‘‘In America I had to
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