1. Streisand made a feminist speech when accepting the ﬁrst Golden Globe for a
woman director for Yentl (1984). But even with Prince of Tides (1991), a nominee for
Best Picture, she was passed over in the director category at the Oscars.
2. Appadurai, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,” 33.
3. Lauzen, “The Celluloid Ceiling.” From the online executive summary: “In 2008,
women comprised 16% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers,
cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing ﬁlms. . . .
Women accounted for 9% of directors in 2008, an increase of 3 percentage points
from 2007. This figure represents no change from the percentage of women direct-
ing in 1998.” The 2008 ﬁgures were quoted by the mainstream press during the
Oscar buildup. In her latest study, Lauzen found women were 8 percent of directors.
“The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind- the- Scenes Employment of Women on the Top 250
Films of 2013,” http://womenintvﬁlm.sdsu.edu/ﬁles/2013_Celluloid_Ceiling_Report
4. These stories also shared space with the coy coverage of the rivalry between Big-
elow and ex- husband James Cameron among the nominees. A low point, earlier in the
season, was marked by Variety editor Peter S. Bart’s comparisons of Bigelow’s looks
with Jane Campion’s appearance: “Unlikely Rivals on the Oscar Circuit.” His piece was
reported by Women and Hollywood blogger Melissa Silverstein, “Sexism Alert: The
Catﬁght Begins,” September 24, 2009, http://womenandhollywood.com/2009/09/24
/sexism- alert- the- catﬁght- begins/.
5. At the same time, Catherine Grant wonders whether feminist criticism of the
1970s–1990s went far enough in reconceptualizing authorship. Grant, “Secret Agents,”
6. Judith Mayne’s Directed by Dorothy Arzner presents these arguments compellingly.
7. See, among others, Jermyn and Redmond, The Cinema of Kathryn Bigelow; Lauzen,
“Kathryn Bigelow”; and Tasker and Atakav, “ ‘And the Time Has Come!’ ”