notE on translitEration
I have used a simpliﬁed version of the system of transliteration of Arabic
words followed by the International Journal of Middle East Studies. Dia-
critical marks are given only to indicate the Arabic letters ‘ayn (‘) and
hamza (’). A hamza appearing at the beginning of a word is normally
dropped, as is the ta marbuta at the end of a word, including in those cases
when it should be vocalized as part of an elision with the following word.
The Arabic letter jim has been rendered as j, except when the Egyptian
pronunciation (gim) is more common, as in gallabiya, or when transcrib-
ing colloquial phrases. In the transliteration of colloquial words, a hamza
is used to denote the letter qaf when it is not vocalized. All Arabic names
are transliterated following the IJMES system, except in cases where a
more commonly accepted version exists or when the person named has
provided a transliteration.