1. The most thorough biography of Kamil is al-Raﬁ‘i, Mustafa Kamil.
2. Mustafa Kamil, “The Antwerp Exhibition,” al-Ahram (August 17 [?],
1894), reprinted in Ali Fahmi Kamil, Mustafa Kamil Basha ﬁ 34 rabi‘an,
2:102. All translations are mine unless otherwise indicated.
3. Kamil, “The Lyons Exhibition,” al-Ahram (July 20–21, 1894), reprinted
in Kamil, Mustafa Kamil Basha, 2:81.
4. This is one way to read Kamil’s words. There is perhaps more to the story
here in his alignment of French philosophers with the East, but I do not
follow that trace here. The contradictions of French empire and French
liberalism would be mediated for Kamil during his brief political career
(he died on February 10, 1908, several months before his thirty-fourth
birthday) through intimate relations he established as a law student at the
University of Toulouse and most signiﬁcantly as a protégé of the editor
of La nouvelle revue, Juliette Adam. On Kamil’s relationship with Adam,
see Haddad, “Mustafa Kamil: A Self-Image from His Correspondence
with Juliette Adam.” Also see Adam, L’Angleterre en Egypte. For a recent
exploration of the intimate milieus of anti-imperialists like Adam in the
British metropolitan context, see Gandhi, Aﬀective Communities.
5. Mitchell, Colonising Egypt, 13. The truth eﬀect produced by the modern
technique of enframing, of which the world exhibitions were one ex-
ample, exerted power through the very act of repeatedly splitting reality
from its representations.
6. The use of these labels for geographical and civilizational spaces in mod-
ern times was and still is inextricable from the history of colonialism.
Hereafter, the quote marks are dropped, and if it is unclear from the con-
text, I will note in which sense I deploy the terms.