All translations are my own unless otherwise noted.
1 Aesthetic salons provide a variety of oil and cream treatments, low-grade
electric shock massages, and chiropractic manipulations in the pursuit of
beauty. Located in department stores, by train and subway stations, and
even in fitness clubs, the salons cater to an almost exclusively female cli-
2 There have been several statistical studies conducted on leisure and sports
in contemporary Japan. The two most well-known are the Leisure White
Papers and the Marketing Data of Leisure Industry and Daily Life. Leisure
White Pages is published annually by the Leisure Development Center; I
draw on statistics from the 1996 and 1997 volumes, the period in which
I was conducting fieldwork. The Marketing Data of Leisure Industry and
DailyLife is compiled by the Ministryof Economy,Trade and Industryand
is published only every three years. To correspond to the period in which
I conducted research in Japan, I have relied on the volume published in
1994.The statistics from this volume are very comprehensive and detailed,
but one must bear in mind that the data are several years old. I use these
statistics only for background on the larger demographics of leisure and
fitness in Japan and hope that the ethnographic portion of this book will
more than supplement the older statistics.
3 For the more current data on Japan, I have contacted Ms. Tomoko Iwai
at Club Management Network (cmn) in Japan, which publishes the only
magazine specializing in health management in Japan and supplies statis-
tics to the LeisureWhite Papers. The Fitness Industry Association of Japan
(fia Japan), which is made up of about nine hundred different clubs, fo-
Racquet and Sportsclub Association (ihrsa) compiles annual statistics on
the state of the fitness industry in Japan. A portion of these statistics is
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