Index
Advertising: and consumption, 186–
187; and fitness clubs, 64–66,
156–157, 171–172, 178, 218 n.4;
and foreigners, 16–17. See also
Esute
Aerobicize. See Television
Aerobics, 11, 12; as American, 4, 16–
17, 26, 33–34, 36–39, 54, 207–209;
and Asahi Shimbun Co., 50–51;
boom, 12, 31, 50–51; clothing for,
46, 52, 68; competitions, 56–60;
as dance, 55–60; in Japan, 36–39,
49–60; and jazz dance, 49, 51,
57; maniacs, 46, 56–60; resistance
through, 8–9, 100–104; sexual-
ization of, 52–55, 56, 59, 99–104;
styles of, 48–49, 207–208. See
also Aerobics instructor; Exercise;
Fitness club; Leotard
Aerobics and Fitness Association of
America. See afaa
Aerobics instructor: and alcohol
consumption, 120, 123, 133–134,
136, 138, 139, 140; and cleaning
duties, 77–81, 219 n.11; coopting
masculine behavior, 115, 119, 120,
135–141; criticism by, 110, 112; as
daughter, 132–133; demographics
of, 118–119, 121; dieting, 184–187;
discrimination against, 120–125; as
expert, 128–129, 130, 135, 138–139;
fans of, 141; image of, 120–121,
122, 129–135; and job frustra-
tion, 31–32, 118–119, 127–128,
138–139; as mother, 129–132; on-
stage/offstage, 69–72, 116–118,
137; as sex object, 133–135; and
smoking, 97,115,120,135–141; and
tanning, 95–98; training schools,
88–91, 94–95, 104–107, 220–
221 n.2. See also Aerobics; afaa;
Fitness club; Service industry
Aesthetic salons. See Esute
afaa, 16, 89, 217 n.12, 221 n.3. See
also jafa
Akino, Yoko, 43
Alcohol, 181; and aerobics instruc-
tors, 120, 123, 133–134, 136, 138,
139, 140; and social networking, 75
Allison, Anne, 75, 117, 130, 133–134,
202
Alter, Joseph, 25
Amae, 131
Amuro, Namie, 97
an-an magazine, 1, 51, 160, 171
Anorexia nervosa: and celebrities,
184, 189, 196; cultural explana-
tions for, 191–192, 200, 202; and
mind/body relationship, 143; and
normative prescriptions for thin-
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