INDEX
Absurdity: and machismo, 170–71; medi-
ation of, 168; in Paz, 170–71; and
‘‘race,’’ 168–69, 186; social power of,
169. See also Humor; Irony; Relajo;
Surrealism
Acapulco, 149
Acuña, Rodolfo, 97
Addams, Jane, 114
Addison, Illinois, 270 n.36
Adelita, figure of, 148
Adult education, 23. See also English as a
Second Language; Pedagogy; Work-
place literacy
A≈rmative action, 70
Africa, 65, 178
African Americans, 5, 70–77, 114, 115, 117,
118, 124, 179–82, 196–98, 208–9, 220,
263–64 n.17; as ‘‘aliens,’’ 208, 263–64
n.17; as ‘‘American,’’ 77; birthright U.S.
citizenship of, 200, 262 n.10; and
Blackness, 182, 192, 197–98, 255 n.1; as
‘‘criminal,’’ 139–40; as ‘‘dangerous,’’
139–41, 272 n.52; and ‘‘deindustrializa-
tion,’’ 124–26; as ‘‘displaced’’ from
employment by migrant workers, 73–
74, 262 n.11, 262–63 n.14; as disquali-
fied from ‘‘American’’-ness, 199–200,
208–9, 263–64 n.17; employer dis-
crimination against, 125–26; erasure
of centrality to U.S. history, 208; fig-
ured as nemesis of ‘‘immigrants,’’
208–9; figured as privileged vis-a-vis
Mexicans, 193–95; and language, 182;
as ‘‘lazy,’’ 165, 190, 192–97, 199–200; as
‘‘native,’’ 70–77; rebellion of, 125–26,
138, 232; relations with Mexicans, 114,
140–41, 159, 165, 193–95, 209; as
replacements for unionized Mexican
workers, 159, 165; segregation in Chi-
cago, 138–39, 271 n.48, 272 nn.50–51;
and slavery, 187, 198; subordinate
citizenship of, 208; as ‘‘welfare-
dependent,’’ 193–95, 199–200, 206;
West Side communities of, 139. See
also Blackness
Africans, 64; enslaved, 187; as ‘‘monkeys,’’
178
Afro-Mexicans, 198, 220
Agriculture, 221, 224
Agriculture, Department of (U.S.), 224
Aguascalientes, 3
Aguirre-Beltrán, Gonzalo, 275 n.25
Alamo, Battle of the, 226
Albures, 273–74 n.8
‘‘Alien,’’ 59, 89–91, 115, 200, 208, 216, 263–
64 n.17; deportable, 59, 91, 93; as
opposed to the iconic ‘‘immigrant,’’
90; as spatialized sociopolitical status,
95. See also ‘‘Illegal alien’’
Alien Nation: Common Sense about
America’s Immigration Disaster, 64–68
All-Asia Barred Zone, 221, 222, 230, 276–
77 n.3
Allen, Theodore, 168
Alonso, Ana, 274–75 n.18
‘‘America,’’ as United States, 64–66, 101
America First, 64
‘‘American Dream,’’ 32, 94
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