Over the course of researching and writing this book I have been
fortunate to receive guidance and encouragement from many friends in
the United States and Brazil. This project began as a dissertation at the
University of Wisconsin, under the direction of Florencia Mallon and
Thomas Skidmore. Tom Skidmore has been a constant source of in-
spiration and support. From my first days in Madison to the present day,
Tom has been a mentor, a friend, and most of all, an example of a
historian and teacher for me to try to emulate. F1orencia's creativity,
passion, and good humor have likewise inspired both me and my work.
Her influence on me has been great, and I thank her for it. Steve Stem
also provided an intellectually challenging yet supportive environment
for me in graduate school. He, along with Tom and Florencia, set an
example of a committed scholar for all of us in the Latin American
History graduate program. Jeanne Boydston of the Women's History
Program also provided invaluable advice and opened new avenues of
inquiry. I am grateful for her encouragement and support.
Several other scholars read and commented on the entire manu-
script. Even though they are good friends, they didn't pull any punches.
I thank Marshall Eakin, Tom Spear, and Barbara Weinstein who read
the dissertation and helped me make it a book manuscript, and I thank
Tom Holloway and Mike Conniff who helped me make it a book. Their
frank and constructive criticism has helped me immeasurably. Larry
Malley of Duke University Press has been a wonderful editor and a
good friend. Mindy Conner and Jean Brady have contributed careful
copy editing and other important assistance.
Many friends contributed to the various stages of this project: I
would like to thank Judith Allen, Reid Andrews, Kathy Brown, Paula
Consolini, Todd Diacon,Jim Dickmeyer, Dario Euraque, Luis Figueroa,
Colin Gordon, Linda Gordon, Michael Greenwald, Michael Hall,
Roger Kittleson, Regina Kunzel, Maria Helena P. T Machado, Jim
Mahon, Frank McCann, John Monteiro, Aquilas Nogueira Mendes,
Ted Pearson, Sarah Rosenson, Chris Waters, Julius Weinberg, and