Notes
Introduction
1.
Meetings duringJuly, August, and October 1945, February 1946,January
and February 1948, December 1951, and January 1952 included such rank-
and-file demands. These are discussed in chapters 4, 5, and 6 in this volume.
2. Several of the many studies on the origins and operation of the
PT
are
Margaret
E.
Keck, The Workers' Party and Democratization
in Brazil
(New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1992); Isabel Ribeiro de Oliveira, Trabalho
e
Polaica: As
Origens do Partido dos Trabalhadores (Petr6polis: Vozes, 1988); and Emir Sader and
Ken Silverstein, Without Fear of Being Happy: Lula, the Workers' Party. and BraZil
(London: Verso, 1991).
3. As in many other labor histories, the concept of class formation used here
owes much to
E.
P. Thompson's classic The Making of the English Working Class
(New York: Vintage, 1966). Thompson's study, however, tends to err on the
side of culture at the expense of the material bases of class formation and the
interaction of workers with those conditions. One of the goals of this book is
to integrate more fully the cultural and material factors in the process of class
formation.
4. For an interesting discussion of the term the masses see Raymond Williams,
Key Words: A Vocabulary of Culture and
Society.
rev. ed. (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1983), 192-97.
5. The classic work on the Brazilian elite is Raymondo Faoro's Os Donos de
Poder: Formac;iio do Patronato
Politico Brasi/eiro,
2d ed., 2 vols. (Sao Paulo: Globo,
1975). While Faoro recognizes that elites' actions have often been reactions to
popular class activities, he concentrates his analysis on the elites alone. Studies
of Brazil's and Sao Paulo's economic and political elites have tended to follow
this course; see, for example, Warren Dean, The Industrialization of Siio Paulo,
i880-i945
(Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969); Eli Diniz, Empresario,
Estado,
e
Capitalismo no
Brasil,
i930-i945
(Rio dejaneiro: Paz e Terra, 1978); and
Marisa Saenz Leme, A Ideologia dos Industriais
Brasileiros,
i9f9-i945
(Petropolis:
Vozes, 1978).
6. The much debated topic of bureaucratic-authoritarianism in Latin Amer-
ica was first discussed by Guillermo
A.
O'Donnell; see his Modernization and
Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism: Studies
in
South American Politics (Berkeley: Institute of
International Studies, University of California, 1979). For a thoughtful critique
199
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