chapter 1: ethnicity and class
1 In the Prison Notebooks (1971, 242, as cited in Buci-Glucksman 1980, 92–93)
Gramsci wrote: ‘‘Educative and formative role of the state. Its aim is always that
of creating new and higher types of civilization [civiltà]; of adapting ‘civilization’
and the morality of the broadest masses to the necessities of the continuous de-
velopment of the economic apparatus of production.’’
2 I use the words ‘‘Indian’’ and ‘‘Indianness’’ here to conform with the way
various Mexican oﬃcials use them. In Spanish, indio usually has a derogatory
meaning. Few people refer to themselves as indios. Whenever possible, they use
the ethnic name.
3 These activities are explained in detail in chapters 8 and 9.
4 Absolute delineations are diﬃcult because there are always some house-
holds that resell other people’s weavings while also engaging in independent
production or doing piecework for someone else. Since the 1990s, some house-
holds have also established themselves in transnational spaces and networks
where they try to work independently as weavers and exporters, marketing their
goods directly in the United States. Most households today, however, continue
to categorize themselves as weavers, merchants, or independent weavers, what-
ever they view as their primary economic activity.
chapter 2: kinship, gender, and globalization
1 See Beals 1970, 234; Cohen 1999, 85–93; Cook and Diskin 1976, 11; de la
Fuente 1949, 120–23; Diskin 1986, 34–39; R. González 2001; Leslie 1960; Martí-
nez Ríos 1964; Nader 1964, 1990; Parsons 1936; Sault 2001; Vargas-Barón 1968,
2 In her further discussion of social reproduction Benería deﬁnes it as ‘‘struc-
tures that have to be reproduced in order that social reproduction as a whole can
take place’’ (1979, 205). She offers as an example such structures as inheritance,
which controls the transmission of resources from one generation to another.
chapter 3: six women’s stories
1 Cristina is referring to a ceremony in which a young man’s family formally
asks for a young woman’s hand in marriage—contentar in Spanish. The request is
accompanied by a gift of candles, fruit, and chocolate. While formerly the gifts
were quite limited, as in Cristina’s experience, now such ceremonies involve up
to sixty candles and truckloads of fruit, chocolate, and bread.